Political Constitution of the United Mexican States

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Political Constitution of the United Mexican States

Political Constitution of the United Mexican States

Chapter I – Human Rights and Their GuaranteesArticle 1.

In the United Mexican States, all persons shall enjoy the human rights recognized in this Constitution and in the international treaties to which the Mexican State is a party,

as well as the guarantees for their protection, the exercise of which may not be restricted or suspended, except in the cases and under the conditions that this Constitution establishes.

(ADDED, DOF JUNE 10, 2011)

The norms related to human rights will be interpreted in accordance with this Constitution and with the international treaties of the matter, favoring at all times the broadest protection for people.

(ADDED, DOF JUNE 10, 2011)

All authorities, within the scope of their powers, have the obligation to promote, respect, protect

and guarantee human rights in accordance with the principles of universality, interdependence, indivisibility, and progressivity. Consequently, the State must prevent, investigate, punish, and repair violations of human rights, in the terms established by law.

Article 1 Of The Constitution

(ADDED, DOF AUGUST 14, 2001)

Slavery is prohibited in the United Mexican States.

The foreign slaves that enter the national territory will achieve, by this single fact, their freedom and the protection of the laws.

(AMENDED, DOF JUNE 10, 2011)

Any discrimination based on ethnic or national origin, gender, age, disabilities, social status, health conditions, religion, opinions, sexual preferences,

marital status, or any other that violates dignity is prohibited. and has the purpose of annulling or impairing the rights and freedoms of individuals.


Article 2.

The Mexican Nation is unique and indivisible.

The Nation has a multicultural composition originally supported by its indigenous peoples, who are those who descend from populations

that inhabited the current territory of the country at the beginning of colonization and who preserve their own social, economic, cultural, and political institutions, or part of them.

Awareness of their indigenous identity should be a fundamental criterion to determine to whom the provisions on indigenous peoples apply.

Communities that are members of an indigenous people are those that form a social, economic, and cultural unit, are settled in a territory,

and recognize their own authorities in accordance with their uses and customs.

The right of indigenous peoples to self-determination will be exercised within a constitutional framework of autonomy that ensures national unity.

The recognition of indigenous peoples and communities will be made in the constitutions and laws of the federative entities, which must take into account,

in addition to the general principles established in the preceding paragraphs of this article, ethnolinguistic criteria and physical settlement.

A. This Constitution recognizes and guarantees the right of indigenous peoples and communities to self-determination and, consequently, to autonomy to:

I. Decide their internal forms of coexistence and social, economic, political and cultural organization.

II. Apply their own regulatory systems in the regulation and solution of their internal conflicts, subject to the general principles of this Constitution,

respecting individual guarantees, human rights, and, relevantly, the dignity and integrity of women. The law will establish the cases and validation procedures by the corresponding judges or courts.


III. Elect, in accordance with their traditional norms, procedures, and practices, the authorities or representatives for the exercise of their own forms of internal government,

guaranteeing that indigenous women and men will enjoy and exercise their right to vote and be voted for in conditions of equality;

as well as to access and carry out public and popularly elected positions for those who have been elected or appointed,

within a framework that respects the federal pact, the sovereignty of the States, and the autonomy of Mexico City. In no case may community practices limit the political-electoral rights of citizens in the election of their municipal authorities.

IV. Preserve and enrich their languages, knowledge, and all the elements that constitute their culture and identity.

V. Conserve and improve the habitat and preserve the integrity of their lands in the terms established in this Constitution.


Access, with respect to the forms and modalities of property and possession of the land established in this Constitution and the laws of the matter,

as well as the rights acquired by third parties or by members of the community, to the preferential use and enjoyment of the resources of the places that the communities inhabit and occupy,

except those that correspond to the strategic areas, in terms of this Constitution. For these purposes, the communities may associate in terms of the law.


VII. Elect, in municipalities with an indigenous population, representatives before the town halls, observing the principle of gender parity in accordance with the applicable regulations.

The constitutions and laws of the federal entities will recognize and regulate these rights in the municipalities,

with the purpose of strengthening political participation and representation in accordance with their traditions and internal regulations. how to rent a car

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